Among the EU Member States, the proportion of female scientists and engineers varied widely in 2021. The highest shares were registered in Lithuania (52%) and Bulgaria, Latvia and Portugal (all 51%) and the lowest in Luxembourg (35%), Germany and Italy (both 34%), Hungary (33%) and Finland (31%).
Looking at the specific high-tech related aggregates, women represented 46% of the scientists and engineers in the knowledge-intensive services, 22% in the high-technology sectors (high-technology manufacturing and knowledge-intensive high-technology services) and only 18% in the high and medium-technology manufacturing.
By sector of activity, women were underrepresented in all the sectors of the statistical classification of economic activities across the EU, although there was more of a gender balance in the services sector (46% of scientists and engineers were female). In the air transport sector, women represented 28%, while in the manufacturing sector, they represented only 21% of their scientists and engineers. The lowest percentage shares for women were registered in the water transport sector (only 8% were female), manufacture of transport equipment (12%) and motor vehicles (13%).